AUTHOR: Surjeet Singh
TITLE :DHARMA AS A KEY CONCEPT IN PURUṢĀRTHA
Abstract :In Indian philosophy mainly four classes of values are accepted. And these values are given an important place. These four are accepted as the essence of the philosophy of value in Indian philosophy. Except for Cārvāka, every Indian philosophical system accepts these values in the same way or in different ways. We found that so many problems are connected to these values i.e. it may be asked whether we desire things because they are of value, or whether they are of value because we desire them.
In the Indian philosophical system, four values are called puruṣārtha. Here the term puruṣārtha in its literally meaning, considered as human goal. It can be derived as ‘puruṣasya arthah’. I.e. the necessity of a person these four values are well known as viz, Dharma (virtue), Artha (wealth), Kāma (pleasure) and Mokṣa (liberation). These four values are known as values of life for an individual. There is a debate in Indian philosophy that first three are only values and mokṣa is not or mokṣa was added in this group later. But we should know that the concept mokṣa is as older as Upanishads itself. Those who accepted three values as puruṣārtha only, they accept it as tri-varga, but as it is well known that mokṣa is as old as upaniṣads are, here I am going to accept all the four values as puruṣārtha, I am not concerned with tri-varga debate here.
We found that Vedas are providing us with the hint about four human values or goals. But in post Vedic period i.e. Smŗti, purāna, darśana and epics, puruṣārtha is classified as dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa directly. On the behalf of this we can say that puruṣārtha finds its sources in Vedas and Vedic literature but as in seed form.
Keywords :DHARMA , PURUṢĀRTHA
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